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Pandoc User’s Guide,Community-led development "The Apache Way"

WebTo post data purely binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode. If any of these options is used more than once on the same command line, the data pieces specified will be merged with a separating &-symbol Web10/11/ · Binary Format. The binary format option causes all data to be stored/read as binary format rather than as text. It is somewhat faster than the text and CSV formats, but a binary-format file is less portable across machine architectures and PostgreSQL versions. Also, the binary format is very data type specific; for example it will not work to output WebOption 2: Automatically find drivers for my NVIDIA products. Learn More Advanced Driver Search: Search for previously released Certified or Beta drivers. (NVIDIA Virtual GPU Customers. Enterprise customers with a current vGPU software license (GRID vPC, GRID vApps or Quadro vDWS), can log into the enterprise software download portal by WebReading binary files (docx, odt, epub) implies --file-scope.-F PROGRAM, --filter= PROGRAM. Specify an executable to be used as a filter transforming the pandoc AST after the input is parsed and before the output is written. The executable should read JSON from stdin and write JSON to stdout. This option works only with HTML output formats WebThe name for the binary log index file, which contains the names of the binary log files. By default, it has the same location and base name as the value specified for the binary log files using the --log-bin option, plus the blogger.com you do not specify --log-bin, the default binary log index file name is blogger.com ... read more

css in the user data directory see --data-dir. If it is not found there, sensible defaults will be used. For best results, the reference docx should be a modified version of a docx file produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference docx are ignored, but its stylesheets and document properties including margins, page size, header, and footer are used in the new docx. If no reference docx is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.

docx in the user data directory see --data-dir. If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used.

To produce a custom reference. docx , first get a copy of the default reference. docx : pandoc -o custom-reference. docx --print-default-data-file reference.

Then open custom-reference. docx in Word, modify the styles as you wish, and save the file. For best results, do not make changes to this file other than modifying the styles used by pandoc:. For best results, the reference ODT should be a modified version of an ODT produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference ODT are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new ODT. If no reference ODT is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.

odt in the user data directory see --data-dir. odt , first get a copy of the default reference. odt : pandoc -o custom-reference. odt --print-default-data-file reference. odt in LibreOffice, modify the styles as you wish, and save the file. Templates included with Microsoft PowerPoint either with. pptx or. potx extension are known to work, as are most templates derived from these.

The specific requirement is that the template should contain layouts with the following names as seen within PowerPoint :. For each name, the first layout found with that name will be used. If no layout is found with one of the names, pandoc will output a warning and use the layout with that name from the default reference doc instead.

How these layouts are used is described in PowerPoint layout choice. All templates included with a recent version of MS PowerPoint will fit these criteria. You can click on Layout under the Home menu to check.

You can also modify the default reference. pptx : first run pandoc -o custom-reference. pptx --print-default-data-file reference. pptx , and then modify custom-reference. pptx in MS PowerPoint pandoc will use the layouts with the names listed above. Use the specified image as the EPUB cover. It is recommended that the image be less than px in width and height. Note that in a Markdown source document you can also specify cover-image in a YAML metadata block see EPUB Metadata , below.

Look in the specified XML file for metadata for the EPUB. The file should contain a series of Dublin Core elements. For example:. Any of these may be overridden by elements in the metadata file. Note: if the source document is Markdown, a YAML metadata block in the document can be used instead. See below under EPUB Metadata. Embed the specified font in the EPUB. This option can be repeated to embed multiple fonts.

However, if you use wildcards on the command line, be sure to escape them or put the whole filename in single quotes, to prevent them from being interpreted by the shell. To use the embedded fonts, you will need to add declarations like the following to your CSS see --css :.

The default is to split into chapters at level-1 headings. This option only affects the internal composition of the EPUB, not the way chapters and sections are displayed to users. Some readers may be slow if the chapter files are too large, so for large documents with few level-1 headings, one might want to use a chapter level of 2 or 3. Specify the subdirectory in the OCF container that is to hold the EPUB-specific contents. The default is EPUB. To put the EPUB contents in the top level, use an empty string.

Determines how ipynb output cells are treated. all means that all of the data formats included in the original are preserved. none means that the contents of data cells are omitted.

best causes pandoc to try to pick the richest data block in each output cell that is compatible with the output format. The default is best. Use the specified engine when producing PDF output. Valid values are pdflatex , lualatex , xelatex , latexmk , tectonic , wkhtmltopdf , weasyprint , pagedjs-cli , prince , context , and pdfroff.

If the engine is not in your PATH, the full path of the engine may be specified here. Use the given string as a command-line argument to the pdf-engine. Note that no check for duplicate options is done. Process the citations in the file, replacing them with rendered citations and adding a bibliography. Citation processing will not take place unless bibliographic data is supplied, either through an external file specified using the --bibliography option or the bibliography field in metadata, or via a references section in metadata containing a list of citations in CSL YAML format with Markdown formatting.

The style is controlled by a CSL stylesheet specified using the --csl option or the csl field in metadata. If no stylesheet is specified, the chicago-author-date style will be used by default.

The citation processing transformation may be applied before or after filters or Lua filters see --filter , --lua-filter : these transformations are applied in the order they appear on the command line. For more information, see the section on Citations. If you supply this argument multiple times, each FILE will be added to bibliography.

If FILE is a URL, it will be fetched via HTTP. If FILE is not found relative to the working directory, it will be sought in the resource path see --resource-path. If FILE is not found relative to the working directory, it will be sought in the resource path see --resource-path and finally in the csl subdirectory of the pandoc user data directory. Use natbib for citations in LaTeX output. This option is not for use with the --citeproc option or with PDF output. It is intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed with bibtex.

Use biblatex for citations in LaTeX output. It is intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed with bibtex or biber. The default is to render TeX math as far as possible using Unicode characters. However, this gives acceptable results only for basic math, usually you will want to use --mathjax or another of the following options. Use MathJax to display embedded TeX math in HTML output.

Then the MathJax JavaScript will render it. The URL should point to the MathJax. js load script. If a URL is not provided, a link to the Cloudflare CDN will be inserted. Convert TeX math to MathML in epub3 , docbook4 , docbook5 , jats , html4 and html5. This is the default in odt output.

Note that currently only Firefox and Safari and select e-book readers natively support MathML. The formula will be URL-encoded and concatenated with the URL provided. Use KaTeX to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The URL is the base URL for the KaTeX library. That directory should contain a katex. js and a katex. css file. If a URL is not provided, a link to the KaTeX CDN will be inserted. The resulting HTML can then be processed by GladTeX to produce SVG images of the typeset formulas and an HTML file with these images embedded.

Print information about command-line arguments to stdout , then exit. This option is intended primarily for use in wrapper scripts. The first line of output contains the name of the output file specified with the -o option, or - for stdout if no output file was specified. The remaining lines contain the command-line arguments, one per line, in the order they appear.

These do not include regular pandoc options and their arguments, but do include any options appearing after a -- separator at the end of the line. Ignore command-line arguments for use in wrapper scripts. Regular pandoc options are not ignored. If pandoc completes successfully, it will return exit code 0.

Nonzero exit codes have the following meanings:. The --defaults option may be used to specify a package of options, in the form of a YAML file. Fields that are omitted will just have their regular default values. So a defaults file can be as simple as one line:. In fields that expect a file path or list of file paths , the following syntax may be used to interpolate environment variables:. This allows you to refer to resources contained in that directory:.

This environment variable interpolation syntax only works in fields that expect file paths. Defaults files can be placed in the defaults subdirectory of the user data directory and used from any directory. For example, one could create a file specifying defaults for writing letters, save it as letter. yaml in the defaults subdirectory of the user data directory, and then invoke these defaults from any directory using pandoc --defaults letter or pandoc -dletter.

Note that, where command-line arguments may be repeated --metadata-file , --css , --include-in-header , --include-before-body , --include-after-body , --variable , --metadata , --syntax-definition , the values specified on the command line will combine with values specified in the defaults file, rather than replacing them. The value of input-files may be left empty to indicate input from stdin, and it can be an empty sequence [] for no input.

Options specified in a defaults file itself always have priority over those in another file included with a defaults: entry. verbosity can have the values ERROR , WARNING , or INFO. Metadata values specified in a defaults file are parsed as literal string text, not Markdown.

Filters will be assumed to be Lua filters if they have the. lua extension, and JSON filters otherwise. But the filter type can also be specified explicitly, as shown.

Filters are run in the order specified. To include the built-in citeproc filter, use either citeproc or {type: citeproc}. cite-method can be citeproc , natbib , or biblatex. This only affects LaTeX output. If you need control over when the citeproc processing is done relative to other filters, you should instead use citeproc in the list of filters see above.

In addition to the values listed above, method can have the value plain. If the command line option accepts a URL argument, an url: field can be added to html-math-method:. To see the default template that is used, just type. where FORMAT is the name of the output format. A custom template can be specified using the --template option. Templates contain variables , which allow for the inclusion of arbitrary information at any point in the file. In addition, some variables are given default values by pandoc.

If you use custom templates, you may need to revise them as pandoc changes. We recommend tracking the changes in the default templates, and modifying your custom templates accordingly.

An easy way to do this is to fork the pandoc-templates repository and merge in changes after each pandoc release. The styles may also be mixed in the same template, but the opening and closing delimiter must match in each case. The opening delimiter may be followed by one or more spaces or tabs, which will be ignored. The closing delimiter may be followed by one or more spaces or tabs, which will be ignored.

A slot for an interpolated variable is a variable name surrounded by matched delimiters. The keywords it , if , else , endif , for , sep , and endfor may not be used as variable names.

Variable names with periods are used to get at structured variable values. So, for example, employee. salary will return the value of the salary field of the object that is the value of the employee field.

A conditional begins with if variable enclosed in matched delimiters and ends with endif enclosed in matched delimiters. It may optionally contain an else enclosed in matched delimiters. The if section is used if variable has a non-empty value, otherwise the else section is used if present.

The keyword elseif may be used to simplify complex nested conditionals:. A for loop begins with for variable enclosed in matched delimiters and ends with endfor enclosed in matched delimiters. You may optionally specify a separator between consecutive values using sep enclosed in matched delimiters. The material between sep and the endfor is the separator.

Instead of using variable inside the loop, the special anaphoric keyword it may be used. Partials subtemplates stored in different files may be included by using the name of the partial, followed by , for example:.

Partials will be sought in the directory containing the main template. The file name will be assumed to have the same extension as the main template if it lacks an extension. When calling the partial, the full name including file extension can also be used:.

If a partial is not found in the directory of the template and the template path is given as a relative path, it will also be sought in the templates subdirectory of the user data directory. If articles is an array, this will iterate over its values, applying the partial bibentry to each one. So the second example above is equivalent to. Note that the anaphoric keyword it must be used when iterating over partials.

In the above examples, the bibentry partial should contain it. title and so on instead of articles. A separator between values of an array may be specified in square brackets, immediately after the variable name or partial:.

The separator in this case is literal and unlike with sep in an explicit for loop cannot contain interpolated variables or other template directives. In this example, if item. description has multiple lines, they will all be indented to line up with the first line:.

Normally, spaces in the template itself as opposed to values of the interpolated variables are not breakable, but they can be made breakable in part of the template by using the ~ keyword ended with another ~. A pipe transforms the value of a variable or partial.

pairs : Converts a map or array to an array of maps, each with key and value fields. If the original value was an array, the key will be the array index, starting with 1.

length : Returns the length of the value: number of characters for a textual value, number of elements for a map or array. reverse : Reverses a textual value or array, and has no effect on other values. first : Returns the first value of an array, if applied to a non-empty array; otherwise returns the original value. last : Returns the last value of an array, if applied to a non-empty array; otherwise returns the original value. rest : Returns all but the first value of an array, if applied to a non-empty array; otherwise returns the original value.

allbutlast : Returns all but the last value of an array, if applied to a non-empty array; otherwise returns the original value. chomp : Removes trailing newlines and breakable space. nowrap : Disables line wrapping on breakable spaces. alpha : Converts textual values that can be read as an integer into lowercase alphabetic characters a.. z mod This can be used to get lettered enumeration from array indices.

To get uppercase letters, chain with uppercase. roman : Converts textual values that can be read as an integer into lowercase roman numerals. To get uppercase roman, chain with uppercase. left n "leftborder" "rightborder" : Renders a textual value in a block of width n , aligned to the left, with an optional left and right border.

Has no effect on other values. This can be used to align material in tables. Widths are positive integers indicating the number of characters. right n "leftborder" "rightborder" : Renders a textual value in a block of width n , aligned to the right, and has no effect on other values.

center n "leftborder" "rightborder" : Renders a textual value in a block of width n , aligned to the center, and has no effect on other values.

allow identification of basic aspects of the document. Included in PDF metadata through LaTeX and ConTeXt. These can be set through a pandoc title block , which allows for multiple authors, or through a YAML metadata block :. Note that if you just want to set PDF or HTML metadata, without including a title block in the document itself, you can set the title-meta , author-meta , and date-meta variables.

By default these are set automatically, based on title , author , and date. The page title in HTML is set by pagetitle , which is equal to title by default. Additionally, any root-level string metadata, not included in ODT, docx or pptx metadata is added as a custom property. The following YAML metadata block for instance:. will include title , author and description as standard document properties and subtitle as a custom property when converting to docx, ODT or pptx.

identifies the main language of the document using IETF language tags following the BCP 47 standard , such as en or en-GB. The Language subtag lookup tool can look up or verify these tags. This affects most formats, and controls hyphenation in PDF output when using LaTeX through babel and polyglossia or ConTeXt. Use native pandoc Divs and Spans with the lang attribute to switch the language:.

the base script direction, either rtl right-to-left or ltr left-to-right. For bidirectional documents, native pandoc span s and div s with the dir attribute value rtl or ltr can be used to override the base direction in some output formats. This may not always be necessary if the final renderer e. the browser, when generating HTML supports the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm. To override or extend some CSS for just one document, include for example:.

These affect HTML output when producing slide shows with pandoc. All reveal. js configuration options are available as variables. To turn off boolean flags that default to true in reveal. js, use 0. These variables change the appearance of PDF slides using beamer.

These variables control the visual aspects of a slide show that are not easily controlled via templates. Pandoc uses these variables when creating a PDF with a LaTeX engine. Instead of using this option, KOMA-Script can adjust headings more extensively:.

option for document class, e. oneside ; repeat for multiple options:. option for geometry package, e. option for hyperref package, e. options for package used as fontfamily ; repeat for multiple options. For example, to use the Libertine font with proportional lowercase old-style figures through the libertinus package:.

options to use with mainfont , sansfont , monofont , mathfont , CJKmainfont in xelatex and lualatex. Allow for any choices available through fontspec ; repeat for multiple options. For example, to use the TeX Gyre version of Palatino with lowercase figures:.

These variables function when using BibLaTeX for citation rendering. Pandoc uses these variables when creating a PDF with ConTeXt. Pandoc uses these variables when creating a PDF with wkhtmltopdf. The --css option also affects the output. Pandoc sets these variables automatically in response to options or document contents; users can also modify them.

These vary depending on the output format, and include the following:. source and destination filenames, as given on the command line. sourcefile can also be a list if input comes from multiple files, or empty if input is from stdin.

You can use the following snippet in your template to distinguish them:. Similarly, outputfile can be - if output goes to the terminal. If you need absolute paths, use e. The behavior of some of the readers and writers can be adjusted by enabling or disabling various extensions. The markdown reader and writer make by far the most use of extensions.

In the following, extensions that also work for other formats are covered. Note that markdown extensions added to the ipynb format affect Markdown cells in Jupyter notebooks as do command-line options like --atx-headers.

Interpret straight quotes as curly quotes, as em-dashes, -- as en-dashes, and as ellipses. Note: If you are writing Markdown, then the smart extension has the reverse effect: what would have been curly quotes comes out straight.

If smart is disabled, then in reading LaTeX pandoc will parse these characters literally. In writing LaTeX, enabling smart tells pandoc to use the ligatures when possible; if smart is disabled pandoc will use unicode quotation mark and dash characters.

A heading without an explicitly specified identifier will be automatically assigned a unique identifier based on the heading text. These rules should, in most cases, allow one to determine the identifier from the heading text. The exception is when several headings have the same text; in this case, the first will get an identifier as described above; the second will get the same identifier with -1 appended; the third with -2 ; and so on.

These identifiers are used to provide link targets in the table of contents generated by the --toc --table-of-contents option.

They also make it easy to provide links from one section of a document to another. A link to this section, for example, might look like this:. Note, however, that this method of providing links to sections works only in HTML, LaTeX, and ConTeXt formats. This allows entire sections to be manipulated using JavaScript or treated differently in CSS. Accents are stripped off of accented Latin letters, and non-Latin letters are omitted.

Emojis are replaced by their names. However, they can also be used with HTML input. This is handy for reading web pages formatted using MathJax, for example. By default, this is disabled for HTML input. This means that. In Markdown output, code blocks with classes haskell and literate will be rendered using bird tracks, and block quotations will be indented one space, so they will not be treated as Haskell code.

In restructured text output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered using bird tracks. In LaTeX input, text in code environments will be parsed as Haskell code. In LaTeX output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered inside code environments. In HTML output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered with class literatehaskell and bird tracks. reads literate Haskell source formatted with Markdown conventions and writes ordinary HTML without bird tracks.

writes HTML with the Haskell code in bird tracks, so it can be copied and pasted as literate Haskell source. Note that GHC expects the bird tracks in the first column, so indented literate code blocks e.

inside an itemized environment will not be picked up by the Haskell compiler. Links to headings, figures and tables inside the document are substituted with cross-references that will use the name or caption of the referenced item.

The original link text is replaced once the generated document is refreshed. Text in cross-references is only made consistent with the referenced item once the document has been refreshed. Links to headings, figures and tables inside the document are substituted with cross-references that will use the number of the referenced item.

The original link text is discarded. Numbers in cross-references are only visible in the final document once it has been refreshed. When converting from docx, read all docx styles as divs for paragraph styles and spans for character styles regardless of whether pandoc understands the meaning of these styles. This can be used with docx custom styles. Disabled by default. In the muse input format, this enables Text::Amuse extensions to Emacs Muse markup. In the ipynb input format, this causes Markdown cells to be included as raw Markdown blocks allowing lossless round-tripping rather than being parsed.

Use this only when you are targeting ipynb or a markdown-based output format. When the citations extension is enabled in org , org-cite and org-ref style citations will be parsed as native pandoc citations. When citations is enabled in docx , citations inserted by Zotero or Mendeley or EndNote plugins will be parsed as native pandoc citations.

Otherwise, the formatted citations generated by the bibliographic software will be parsed as regular text. As in Org Mode, enabling this extension allows lowercase and uppercase alphabetical markers for ordered lists to be parsed in addition to arabic ones.

These elements are not influenced by CSL styles, but all information on the item is included in tags. In the context output format this enables the use of Natural Tables TABLE instead of the default Extreme Tables xtables. Natural tables allow more fine-grained global customization but come at a performance penalty compared to extreme tables. This document explains the syntax, noting differences from original Markdown.

Extensions can be enabled or disabled to specify the behavior more granularly. They are described in the following. See also Extensions above, for extensions that work also on other formats.

Whereas Markdown was originally designed with HTML generation in mind, pandoc is designed for multiple output formats. Thus, while pandoc allows the embedding of raw HTML, it discourages it, and provides other, non-HTMLish ways of representing important document elements like definition lists, tables, mathematics, and footnotes. A paragraph is one or more lines of text followed by one or more blank lines.

Newlines are treated as spaces, so you can reflow your paragraphs as you like. If you need a hard line break, put two or more spaces at the end of a line. A backslash followed by a newline is also a hard line break. Note: in multiline and grid table cells, this is the only way to create a hard line break, since trailing spaces in the cells are ignored.

The heading text can contain inline formatting, such as emphasis see Inline formatting , below. An ATX-style heading consists of one to six signs and a line of text, optionally followed by any number of signs. The number of signs at the beginning of the line is the heading level:. Original Markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a heading.

Pandoc does require this except, of course, at the beginning of the document. The reason for the requirement is that it is all too easy for a to end up at the beginning of a line by accident perhaps through line wrapping.

Consider, for example:. Many Markdown implementations do not require a space between the opening s of an ATX heading and the heading text, so that 5 bolt and hashtag count as headings. With this extension, pandoc does require the space.

Headings can be assigned attributes using this syntax at the end of the line containing the heading text:. Thus, for example, the following headings will all be assigned the identifier foo :. This syntax is compatible with PHP Markdown Extra. Identifiers are used for labels and link anchors in the LaTeX, ConTeXt, Textile, Jira markup, and AsciiDoc writers.

Headings with the class unnumbered will not be numbered, even if --number-sections is specified. A single hyphen - in an attribute context is equivalent to. unnumbered , and preferable in non-English documents. If the unlisted class is present in addition to unnumbered , the heading will not be included in a table of contents.

Currently this feature is only implemented for certain formats: those based on LaTeX and HTML, PowerPoint, and RTF. Pandoc behaves as if reference links have been defined for each heading. So, to link to a heading. If there are multiple headings with identical text, the corresponding reference will link to the first one only, and you will need to use explicit links to link to the others, as described above.

Explicit link reference definitions always take priority over implicit heading references. So, in the following example, the link will point to bar , not to foo :. Markdown uses email conventions for quoting blocks of text. Among the block elements that can be contained in a block quote are other block quotes. That is, block quotes can be nested:. Original Markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a block quote. A block of text indented four spaces or one tab is treated as verbatim text: that is, special characters do not trigger special formatting, and all spaces and line breaks are preserved.

For example,. The initial four space or one tab indentation is not considered part of the verbatim text, and is removed in the output. In addition to standard indented code blocks, pandoc supports fenced code blocks.

These begin with a row of three or more tildes ~ and end with a row of tildes that must be at least as long as the starting row. Everything between these lines is treated as code. No indentation is necessary:.

Like regular code blocks, fenced code blocks must be separated from surrounding text by blank lines. If the code itself contains a row of tildes or backticks, just use a longer row of tildes or backticks at the start and end:. Here mycode is an identifier, haskell and numberLines are classes, and startFrom is an attribute with value Some output formats can use this information to do syntax highlighting.

Currently, the only output formats that use this information are HTML, LaTeX, Docx, Ms, and PowerPoint. If highlighting is supported for your output format and language, then the code block above will appear highlighted, with numbered lines. To see which languages are supported, type pandoc --list-highlight-languages. Otherwise, the code block above will appear as follows:. The numberLines or number-lines class will cause the lines of the code block to be numbered, starting with 1 or the value of the startFrom attribute.

The lineAnchors or line-anchors class will cause the lines to be clickable anchors in HTML output. To prevent all highlighting, use the --no-highlight flag. To set the highlighting style, use --highlight-style. For more information on highlighting, see Syntax highlighting , below. A line block is a sequence of lines beginning with a vertical bar followed by a space.

The division into lines will be preserved in the output, as will any leading spaces; otherwise, the lines will be formatted as Markdown. This is useful for verse and addresses:. The lines can be hard-wrapped if needed, but the continuation line must begin with a space. Inline formatting such as emphasis is allowed in the content, but not block-level formatting such as block quotes or lists. This syntax is borrowed from reStructuredText. A bullet list is a list of bulleted list items.

Here is a simple example:. The bullets need not be flush with the left margin; they may be indented one, two, or three spaces. The bullet must be followed by whitespace. A list item may contain multiple paragraphs and other block-level content.

However, subsequent paragraphs must be preceded by a blank line and indented to line up with the first non-space content after the list marker.

Exception: if the list marker is followed by an indented code block, which must begin 5 spaces after the list marker, then subsequent paragraphs must begin two columns after the last character of the list marker:. List items may include other lists. In this case the preceding blank line is optional. The nested list must be indented to line up with the first non-space character after the list marker of the containing list item.

However, if there are multiple paragraphs or other blocks in a list item, the first line of each must be indented. Ordered lists work just like bulleted lists, except that the items begin with enumerators rather than bullets. In original Markdown, enumerators are decimal numbers followed by a period and a space. The numbers themselves are ignored, so there is no difference between this list:.

Unlike original Markdown, pandoc allows ordered list items to be marked with uppercase and lowercase letters and roman numerals, in addition to Arabic numerals. List markers may be enclosed in parentheses or followed by a single right-parenthesis or period. They must be separated from the text that follows by at least one space, and, if the list marker is a capital letter with a period, by at least two spaces. Pandoc also pays attention to the type of list marker used, and to the starting number, and both of these are preserved where possible in the output format.

Thus, the following yields a list with numbers followed by a single parenthesis, starting with 9, and a sublist with lowercase roman numerals:. Pandoc will start a new list each time a different type of list marker is used.

So, the following will create three lists:. Pandoc supports definition lists, using the syntax of PHP Markdown Extra with some extensions. Each term must fit on one line, which may optionally be followed by a blank line, and must be followed by one or more definitions. A definition begins with a colon or tilde, which may be indented one or two spaces. A term may have multiple definitions, and each definition may consist of one or more block elements paragraph, code block, list, etc.

The body of the definition not including the first line should be indented four spaces. If you leave space before the definition as in the example above , the text of the definition will be treated as a paragraph.

For a more compact definition list, omit the space before the definition:. Note that space between items in a definition list is required. The special list marker can be used for sequentially numbered examples.

The numbered examples need not occur in a single list; each new list using will take up where the last stopped. So, for example:. Note: continuation paragraphs in example lists must always be indented four spaces, regardless of the length of the list marker.

This is because example labels tend to be long, and indenting content to the first non-space character after the label would be awkward. Here pandoc like other Markdown implementations will treat { my code block } as the second paragraph of item two, and not as a code block. We strongly recommend that horizontal rules be separated from surrounding text by blank lines.

If a horizontal rule is not followed by a blank line, pandoc may try to interpret the lines that follow as a YAML metadata block or a table. Four kinds of tables may be used. The first three kinds presuppose the use of a fixed-width font, such as Courier.

The fourth kind can be used with proportionally spaced fonts, as it does not require lining up columns. A caption may optionally be provided with all 4 kinds of tables as illustrated in the examples below. A caption is a paragraph beginning with the string Table: or just : , which will be stripped off. It may appear either before or after the table. The header and table rows must each fit on one line. Column alignments are determined by the position of the header text relative to the dashed line below it: 3.

The column header row may be omitted, provided a dashed line is used to end the table. When the header row is omitted, column alignments are determined on the basis of the first line of the table body.

So, in the tables above, the columns would be right, left, center, and right aligned, respectively. Multiline tables allow header and table rows to span multiple lines of text but cells that span multiple columns or rows of the table are not supported. Here is an example:. In multiline tables, the table parser pays attention to the widths of the columns, and the writers try to reproduce these relative widths in the output.

So, if you find that one of the columns is too narrow in the output, try widening it in the Markdown source. It is possible for a multiline table to have just one row, but the row should be followed by a blank line and then the row of dashes that ends the table , or the table may be interpreted as a simple table.

The cells of grid tables may contain arbitrary block elements multiple paragraphs, code blocks, lists, etc. Cells that span multiple columns or rows are not supported. Alignments can be specified as with pipe tables, by putting colons at the boundaries of the separator line after the header:. Pandoc does not support grid tables with row spans or column spans.

This means that neither variable numbers of columns across rows nor variable numbers of rows across columns are supported by Pandoc. All grid tables must have the same number of columns in each row, and the same number of rows in each column. For example, the Docutils sample grid tables will not render as expected with Pandoc. The syntax is identical to PHP Markdown Extra tables. The beginning and ending pipe characters are optional, but pipes are required between all columns.

The colons indicate column alignment as shown. The header cannot be omitted. To simulate a headerless table, include a header with blank cells. Since the pipes indicate column boundaries, columns need not be vertically aligned, as they are in the above example.

So, this is a perfectly legal though ugly pipe table:. The cells of pipe tables cannot contain block elements like paragraphs and lists, and cannot span multiple lines. If any line of the markdown source is longer than the column width see --columns , then the table will take up the full text width and the cell contents will wrap, with the relative cell widths determined by the number of dashes in the line separating the table header from the table body.

On the other hand, if no lines are wider than column width, then cell contents will not be wrapped, and the cells will be sized to their contents. Other orgtbl features are not supported. it will be parsed as bibliographic information, not regular text. It will be used, for example, in the title of standalone LaTeX or HTML output. The block may contain just a title, a title and an author, or all three elements. If you want to include an author but no title, or a title and a date but no author, you need a blank line:.

The title may occupy multiple lines, but continuation lines must begin with leading space, thus:. If a document has multiple authors, the authors may be put on separate lines with leading space, or separated by semicolons, or both. So, all of the following are equivalent:. All three metadata fields may contain standard inline formatting italics, links, footnotes, etc. Title blocks will always be parsed, but they will affect the output only when the --standalone -s option is chosen.

In HTML output, titles will appear twice: once in the document head — this is the title that will appear at the top of the window in a browser — and once at the beginning of the document body.

The title in the document head can have an optional prefix attached --title-prefix or -T option. If a title prefix is specified with -T and no title block appears in the document, the title prefix will be used by itself as the HTML title.

The man page writer extracts a title, man page section number, and other header and footer information from the title line. The title is assumed to be the first word on the title line, which may optionally end with a single-digit section number in parentheses. There should be no space between the title and the parentheses. Anything after this is assumed to be additional footer and header text.

A single pipe character should be used to separate the footer text from the header text. will yield a man page with the title PANDOC and section 1. A YAML metadata block is a valid YAML object, delimited by a line of three hyphens at the top and a line of three hyphens or three dots at the bottom. The initial line must not be followed by a blank line. A YAML metadata block may occur anywhere in the document, but if it is not at the beginning, it must be preceded by a blank line.

Note that, because of the way pandoc concatenates input files when several are provided, you may also keep the metadata in a separate YAML file and pass it to pandoc as an argument, along with your Markdown files:. Just be sure that the YAML file begins with and ends with or Alternatively, you can use the --metadata-file option.

Using that approach however, you cannot reference content like footnotes from the main markdown input document. Metadata will be taken from the fields of the YAML object and added to any existing document metadata. Metadata can contain lists and objects nested arbitrarily , but all string scalars will be interpreted as Markdown. Fields with names ending in an underscore will be ignored by pandoc.

They may be given a role by external processors. Field names must not be interpretable as YAML numbers or boolean values so, for example, yes , True , and 15 cannot be used as field names. A document may contain multiple metadata blocks. If two metadata blocks attempt to set the same field, the value from the second block will be taken. Each metadata block is handled internally as an independent YAML document. This means, for example, that any YAML anchors defined in a block cannot be referenced in another block.

All of the metadata will appear in a single block at the beginning of the document. Note that YAML escaping rules must be followed. Thus, for example, if a title contains a colon, it must be quoted, and if it contains a backslash escape, then it must be ensured that it is not treated as a YAML escape sequence.

The pipe character can be used to begin an indented block that will be interpreted literally, without need for escaping. This form is necessary when the field contains blank lines or block-level formatting:.

The literal block after the must be indented relative to the line containing the. If it is not, the YAML will be invalid and pandoc will not interpret it as metadata. For an overview of the complex rules governing YAML, see the Wikipedia entry on YAML syntax. Template variables will be set automatically from the metadata. Thus, for example, in writing HTML, the variable abstract will be set to the HTML equivalent of the Markdown in the abstract field:.

Variables can contain arbitrary YAML structures, but the template must match this structure. The author variable in the default templates expects a simple list or string, but can be changed to support more complicated structures. The following combination, for example, would add an affiliation to the author if one is given:.

However, in these formats the following restrictions apply:. The YAML metadata block must occur at the beginning of the document and there can be only one. If multiple files are given as arguments to pandoc, only the first can be a YAML metadata block.

The leaf nodes of the YAML structure are parsed in isolation from each other and from the rest of the document. Except inside a code block or inline code, any punctuation or space character preceded by a backslash will be treated literally, even if it would normally indicate formatting.

Thus, for example, if one writes. A backslash-escaped space is parsed as a nonbreaking space. In TeX output, it will appear as ~. A backslash-escaped newline i. a backslash occurring at the end of a line is parsed as a hard line break. To strike out a section of text with a horizontal line, begin and end it with ~~. If the superscripted or subscripted text contains spaces, these spaces must be escaped with backslashes. The general rule is that a verbatim span starts with a string of consecutive backticks optionally followed by a space and ends with a string of the same number of backticks optionally preceded by a space.

Note that backslash-escapes and other Markdown constructs do not work in verbatim contexts:. Attributes can be attached to verbatim text, just as with fenced code blocks :. In this case, the delimiters may be separated from the formula by whitespace. TeX math will be printed in all output formats. How it is rendered depends on the output format:.

Technically this is not an extension, since standard Markdown allows it, but it has been made an extension so that it can be disabled if desired. The raw HTML is passed through unchanged in HTML, S5, Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, EPUB, Markdown, CommonMark, Emacs Org mode, and Textile output, and suppressed in other formats. Otherwise, plain-text fallbacks will be used. Thus, for example, pandoc will turn.

This departure from original Markdown should make it easier to mix Markdown with HTML block elements. In addition to raw HTML, pandoc allows raw LaTeX, TeX, and ConTeXt to be included in a document. Inline TeX commands will be preserved and passed unchanged to the LaTeX and ConTeXt writers. Thus, for example, you can use LaTeX to include BibTeX citations:. For JAR files, the preference is to specify version requirements in the JAR file manifest rather than on the command line.

Disables background compilation. By default, the JVM compiles the method as a background task, running the method in interpreter mode until the background compilation is finished. The -Xbatch flag disables background compilation so that compilation of all methods proceeds as a foreground task until completed. Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons : to search for boot class files. These are used in place of the boot class files included in the JDK. Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in rt.

jar , because this violates the JRE binary code license. Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons : to append to the end of the default bootstrap class path. Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons : to prepend to the front of the default bootstrap class path. Performs additional checks for Java Native Interface JNI functions. Specifically, it validates the parameters passed to the JNI function and the runtime environment data before processing the JNI request.

Any invalid data encountered indicates a problem in the native code, and the JVM will terminate with an irrecoverable error in such cases. Expect a performance degradation when this option is used. Forces compilation of methods on first invocation.

By default, the Client VM -client performs 1, interpreted method invocations and the Server VM -server performs 10, interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation.

Specifying the -Xcomp option disables interpreted method invocations to increase compilation performance at the expense of efficiency. You can also change the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation using the -XX:CompileThreshold option. Enables strict class-file format checks that enforce close conformance to the class-file format specification. Developers are encouraged to use this flag when developing new code because the stricter checks will become the default in future releases.

Runs the application in interpreted-only mode. Compilation to native code is disabled, and all bytecode is executed by the interpreter. The performance benefits offered by the just in time JIT compiler are not present in this mode. Displays more detailed JVM version information than the -version option, and then exits. Sets the file to which verbose GC events information should be redirected for logging. The information written to this file is similar to the output of -verbose:gc with the time elapsed since the first GC event preceding each logged event.

The -Xloggc option overrides -verbose:gc if both are given with the same java command. Specifies the maximum code cache size in bytes for JIT-compiled code. Append the letter k or K to indicate kilobytes, m or M to indicate megabytes, g or G to indicate gigabytes.

The default maximum code cache size is MB; if you disable tiered compilation with the option -XX:-TieredCompilation , then the default size is 48 MB:. Executes all bytecode by the interpreter except for hot methods, which are compiled to native code. Sets the initial and maximum size in bytes of the heap for the young generation nursery.

The young generation region of the heap is used for new objects. GC is performed in this region more often than in other regions. If the size for the young generation is too small, then a lot of minor garbage collections will be performed. If the size is too large, then only full garbage collections will be performed, which can take a long time to complete. Oracle recommends that you keep the size for the young generation between a half and a quarter of the overall heap size.

The following examples show how to set the initial and maximum size of young generation to MB using various units:. Instead of the -Xmn option to set both the initial and maximum size of the heap for the young generation, you can use -XX:NewSize to set the initial size and -XX:MaxNewSize to set the maximum size.

Sets the minimum and the initial size in bytes of the heap. This value must be a multiple of and greater than 1 MB. The following examples show how to set the size of allocated memory to 6 MB using various units:. If you do not set this option, then the initial size will be set as the sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation. The initial size of the heap for the young generation can be set using the -Xmn option or the -XX:NewSize option.

Note that the -XX:InitalHeapSize option can also be used to set the initial heap size. If it appears after -Xms on the command line, then the initial heap size gets set to the value specified with -XX:InitalHeapSize. Specifies the maximum size in bytes of the memory allocation pool in bytes. This value must be a multiple of and greater than 2 MB. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration.

For server deployments, -Xms and -Xmx are often set to the same value. The following examples show how to set the maximum allowed size of allocated memory to 80 MB using various units:. Disables garbage collection GC of classes. This can save some GC time, which shortens interruptions during the application run. When you specify -Xnoclassgc at startup, the class objects in the application will be left untouched during GC and will always be considered live.

This can result in more memory being permanently occupied which, if not used carefully, will throw an out of memory exception. Profiles the running program and sends profiling data to standard output. This option is provided as a utility that is useful in program development and is not intended to be used in production systems. Shutdown hooks enable orderly shutdown of a Java application by running user cleanup code such as closing database connections at shutdown, even if the JVM terminates abruptly.

The JVM catches signals to implement shutdown hooks for unexpected termination. The JVM uses SIGHUP , SIGINT , and SIGTERM to initiate the running of shutdown hooks. The JVM uses a similar mechanism to implement the feature of dumping thread stacks for debugging purposes. The JVM uses SIGQUIT to perform thread dumps. Applications embedding the JVM frequently need to trap signals such as SIGINT or SIGTERM , which can lead to interference with the JVM signal handlers.

The -Xrs option is available to address this issue. When -Xrs is used, the signal masks for SIGINT , SIGTERM , SIGHUP , and SIGQUIT are not changed by the JVM, and signal handlers for these signals are not installed.

User code is responsible for causing shutdown hooks to run, for example, by calling System. exit when the JVM is to be terminated. Sets the class data sharing CDS mode. Possible mode arguments for this option include the following:.

Do not use CDS. This is the default value for Java HotSpot Bit Server VM, Java HotSpot Bit Client VM, and Java HotSpot Bit Server VM. Manually generate the CDS archive. Specify the application class path as described in "Setting the Class Path". Shows settings and continues. Possible category arguments for this option include the following:. Sets the thread stack size in bytes. Append the letter k or K to indicate KB, m or M to indicate MB, g or G to indicate GB.

The default value depends on the platform:. Use alternative signals instead of SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 for JVM internal signals. Sets the mode of the bytecode verifier. Bytecode verification ensures that class files are properly formed and satisfy the constraints listed in section 4. Do not turn off verification as this reduces the protection provided by Java and could cause problems due to ill-formed class files.

Verifies all bytecodes not loaded by the bootstrap class loader. This is the default behavior if you do not specify the -Xverify option. Disables verification of all bytecodes. Use of -Xverify:none is unsupported. Enables the option to prevent the java command from running a Java application if it uses the endorsed-standards override mechanism or the extension mechanism. This option checks if an application is using one of these mechanisms by checking the following:.

dirs or java. dirs system property is set. Enables the option that disables the mechanism that lets tools attach to the JVM. By default, this option is disabled, meaning that the attach mechanism is enabled and you can use tools such as jcmd , jstack , jmap , and jinfo. Specifies the path and file name to which error data is written when an irrecoverable error occurs. log where pid is the identifier of the process that caused the error. log :. If the file cannot be created in the specified directory due to insufficient space, permission problem, or another issue , then the file is created in the temporary directory for the operating system.

Enables automatic failover to the old verifier when the new type checker fails. By default, this option is disabled and it is ignored that is, treated as disabled for classes with a recent bytecode version. You can enable it for classes with older versions of the bytecode. Enables the use of the Java Flight Recorder JFR during the runtime of the application. If this option is not provided, Java Flight Recorder can still be enabled in a running JVM by providing the appropriate jcmd diagnostic commands.

Disables the use of the Java Flight Recorder JFR during the runtime of the application. Sets the parameters that control the behavior of JFR. Specifies whether a default continuous recording should be started for the Java application. By default, this parameter is set to false. To start a default recording automatically, set the parameter to true. Specifies whether to write temporary data to the disk repository. To enable it, set the parameter to true. Specifies whether a dump file of JFR data should be generated when the JVM terminates in a controlled manner.

By default, this parameter is set to false dump file on exit is not generated. The dump file is written to the location defined by the dumponexitpath parameter. If the specified path is a directory, the JVM assigns a file name that shows the creation date and time.

If the specified path includes a file name and if that file already exists, the JVM creates a new file by appending the date and time stamp to the specified file name. Specifies the total amount of primary memory in bytes used for data retention. Append k or K , to specify the size in KB, m or M to specify the size in MB, g or G to specify the size in GB. By default, the size is set to bytes. Specify the amount of data written to the log file by JFR.

By default, it is set to info. Specifies the maximum age of disk data to keep for the default recording. Append s to specify the time in seconds, m for minutes, h for hours, or d for days for example, specifying 30s means 30 seconds. By default, the maximum age is set to 15 minutes 15m. Specifies the maximum size in bytes of the data chunks in a recording. By default, the maximum size of data chunks is set to 12 MB. Specifies the maximum size in bytes of disk data to keep for the default recording.

By default, the maximum size of disk data is not limited, and this parameter is set to 0. Specifies the repository a directory for temporary disk storage. By default, the system's temporary directory is used. Specifies whether thread sampling is enabled. Thread sampling occurs only if the sampling event is enabled along with this parameter. By default, this parameter is enabled.

Specifies the path and name of the event settings file of type JFC. By default, the default. Stack depth for stack traces by JFR. By default, the depth is set to 64 method calls. The maximum is , minimum is 1. Specifies the per-thread local buffer size in bytes. Higher values for this parameter allow more data gathering without contention to flush it to the global storage. It can increase application footprint in a thread-rich environment.

By default, the local buffer size is set to 5 KB. You can specify values for multiple parameters by separating them with a comma. For example, to instruct JFR to write a continuous recording to disk, and set the maximum size of data chunks to 10 MB, specify the following:. On Solaris, sets the maximum size in bytes for large pages used for Java heap. The size argument must be a power of 2 2, 4, 8, 16, By default, the size is set to 0, meaning that the JVM chooses the size for large pages automatically.

nio package direct-buffer allocations. By default, the size is set to 0, meaning that the JVM chooses the size for NIO direct-buffer allocations automatically. Specifies the mode for tracking JVM native memory usage. Do not track JVM native memory usage. This is the default behavior if you do not specify the -XX:NativeMemoryTracking option. In addition to tracking memory usage by JVM subsystems, track memory usage by individual CallSite , individual virtual memory region and its committed regions.

Sets the memory alignment of Java objects in bytes. By default, the value is set to 8 bytes. The specified value should be a power of two, and must be within the range of 8 and inclusive. This option makes it possible to use compressed pointers with large Java heap sizes. Note: As the alignment value increases, the unused space between objects will also increase. As a result, you may not realize any benefits from using compressed pointers with large Java heap sizes.

Sets a custom command or a series of semicolon-separated commands to run when an irrecoverable error occurs. If the string contains spaces, then it must be enclosed in quotation marks. Sets a custom command or a series of semicolon-separated commands to run when an OutOfMemoryError exception is first thrown. For an example of a command string, see the description of the -XX:OnError option.

If enabled, saves jstat 1 binary data when the Java application exits. Use jstat to display the performance data contained in this file as follows:. If true, then calculate the container CPU availability based on the value of its CPU CFS Completely Fair Scheduler quota if set. If false, then use the CPU shares value instead, provided it is less than the CPU quota value. The VM uses the container CPU availability value to calculate the number of available processors if you haven't specified it with the -XX:ActiveProcessorCount option.

Note : The CPU count will never exceed the number of active processors available to the process. Active processors may have been limited by having them disabled or by selecting a cpuset a list of CPUs; see the PrintContainerInfo option for a container.

Enables printing of ergonomically selected JVM flags that appeared on the command line. It can be useful to know the ergonomic values set by the JVM, such as the heap space size and the selected garbage collector.

By default, this option is disabled and flags are not printed. Enables printing of collected native memory tracking data at JVM exit when native memory tracking is enabled see -XX:NativeMemoryTracking. By default, this option is disabled and native memory tracking data is not printed. Decreases the amount of access control checks in the verifier. By default, this option is disabled, and it is ignored that is, treated as disabled for classes with a recent bytecode version.

Sets the parameter that controls the sampling interval for Resource Management measurements, in milliseconds. Specifies the text file that contains the names of the class files to store in the class data sharing CDS archive. For example, to specify the classes java. Object and hello. Main , create a text file that contains the following two lines:.

The class files that you specify in this text file should include the classes that are commonly used by the application. They may include any classes from the application, extension, or bootstrap class paths. Enables displaying of a dialog box when the JVM experiences an irrecoverable error. This prevents the JVM from exiting and keeps the process active so that you can attach a debugger to it to investigate the cause of the error.

By default, this option is disabled. Starts a JFR recording for the Java application. This option is equivalent to the JFR. start diagnostic command that starts a recording during runtime. You can set the following parameters when starting a JFR recording:.

Specifies whether to compress the JFR recording log file of type JFR on the disk using the gzip file compression utility. This parameter is valid only if the filename parameter is specified. By default it is set to false recording is not compressed.

To enable compression, set the parameter to true. Specifies whether the recording is a continuous background recording or if it runs for a limited time. By default, this parameter is set to false recording runs for a limited time. To make the recording run continuously, set the parameter to true.

Specifies the delay between the Java application launch time and the start of the recording. Append s to specify the time in seconds, m for minutes, h for hours, or d for days for example, specifying 10m means 10 minutes. By default, there is no delay, and this parameter is set to 0. The dump file is written to the location defined by the filename parameter.

Specifies the duration of the recording. Append s to specify the time in seconds, m for minutes, h for hours, or d for days for example, specifying 5h means 5 hours. By default, the duration is not limited, and this parameter is set to 0. Specifies the identifier for the JFR recording. By default, it is set to Recording x. For example, to save the recording to test.

jfr in the current working directory, and instruct JFR to compress the log file, specify the following:. Enables tracing of classes as they are loaded. By default, this option is disabled and classes are not traced. Enables tracing of all loaded classes in the order in which they are referenced. Enables tracing of constant pool resolutions.

By default, this option is disabled and constant pool resolutions are not traced. Enables tracing of classes as they are unloaded. Enables tracing of the loader constraints recording. By default, this option is disabled and loader constraints recording is not traced. Enables the use of commercial features. By default, this option is disabled and the JVM runs without the commercial features. Once they were enabled for a JVM process, it is not possible to disable their use for that process.

If this option is not provided, commercial features can still be unlocked in a running JVM by using the appropriate jcmd diagnostic commands. Enables the use of alternative signals instead of SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 for JVM internal signals. By default, this option is disabled and alternative signals are not used. This option is equivalent to -Xusealtsigs. Enables application class data sharing AppCDS.

To use AppCDS, you must also specify values for the options -XX:SharedClassListFile and -XX:SharedArchiveFile during both CDS dump time see the option -Xshare:dump and application run time. This is also an experimental feature; it may change in future releases. Disables the use of biased locking. Some applications with significant amounts of uncontended synchronization may attain significant speedups with this flag enabled, whereas applications with certain patterns of locking may see slowdowns.

html section4. Disables the use of compressed pointers. By default, this option is enabled, and compressed pointers are used when Java heap sizes are less than 32 GB.

When this option is enabled, object references are represented as bit offsets instead of bit pointers, which typically increases performance when running the application with Java heap sizes less than 32 GB. This option works only for bit JVMs. It is also possible to use compressed pointers when Java heap sizes are greater than 32GB. See the -XX:ObjectAlignmentInBytes option. The VM provides automatic container detection support, which enables the VM to determine the amount of memory and number of processors that are available to a Java process running in docker containers.

It uses this information to allocate system resources. This support is only available on Linux x64 platforms. If supported, then the default value for this flag is true and container support is enabled by default.

You can disable it with -XX:-UseContainerSupport. This option is disabled by default. This option pre-allocates all large pages up-front, when memory is reserved; consequently the JVM cannot dynamically grow or shrink large pages memory areas; see -XX:UseTransparentHugePages if you want this behavior. Enables the use of large page memory. By default, this option is disabled and large page memory is not used. Enables issuing of membars on thread state transitions.

This option is disabled by default on all platforms except ARM servers, where it is enabled. It is recommended that you do not disable this option on ARM servers.

Enables the perfdata feature. This option is enabled by default to allow JVM monitoring and performance testing.

To disable the perfdata feature, specify -XX:-UsePerfData. On Linux, enables the use of large pages that can dynamically grow or shrink. You may encounter performance problems with transparent huge pages as the OS moves other pages around to create huge pages; this option is made available for experimentation. Enables installation of signal handlers by the application. By default, this option is disabled and the application is not allowed to install signal handlers.

These options control the dynamic just-in-time JIT compilation performed by the Java HotSpot VM. Enables the use of aggressive performance optimization features, which are expected to become default in upcoming releases. By default, this option is disabled and experimental performance features are not used. Sets the number of lines to prefetch ahead of the instance allocation pointer.

By default, the number of lines to prefetch is set to Sets the size in bytes of the prefetch distance for object allocation. Memory about to be written with the value of new objects is prefetched up to this distance starting from the address of the last allocated object.

Each Java thread has its own allocation point. Negative values denote that prefetch distance is chosen based on the platform. Positive values are bytes to prefetch. The default value is set to Sets the prefetch instruction to prefetch ahead of the allocation pointer. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option. Possible values are from 0 to 3. The actual instructions behind the values depend on the platform. By default, the prefetch instruction is set to Sets the number of cache lines to load after the last object allocation by using the prefetch instructions generated in compiled code.

The default value is 1 if the last allocated object was an instance, and 3 if it was an array. Sets the step size in bytes for sequential prefetch instructions. By default, the step size is set to 16 bytes:. Sets the generated code style for prefetch instructions. The style argument is an integer from 0 to Use the thread-local allocation block TLAB watermark pointer to determine when prefetch instructions are executed. Enables background compilation. This option is enabled by default.

To disable background compilation, specify -XX:-BackgroundCompilation this is equivalent to specifying -Xbatch. Sets the number of compiler threads to use for compilation. By default, the number of threads is set to 2 for the server JVM, to 1 for the client JVM, and it scales to the number of cores if tiered compilation is used.

The following example shows how to set the number of threads to Sets the minimum free space in bytes required for compilation. When less than the minimum free space remains, compiling stops. By default, this option is set to KB. The following example shows how to set the minimum free space to MB:. Specifies a command to perform on a method. For example, to exclude the indexOf method of the String class from being compiled, use the following:. If the method is specified without the signature, the command will be applied to all methods with the specified name.

However, you can also specify the signature of the method in the class file format. In this case, you should enclose the arguments in quotation marks, because otherwise the shell treats the semicolon as command end.

For example, if you want to exclude only the indexOf String method of the String class from being compiled, use the following:. For example, to exclude all indexOf methods in all classes from being compiled, use the following:. The commas and periods are aliases for spaces, making it easier to pass compiler commands through a shell.

You can pass arguments to -XX:CompileCommand using spaces as separators by enclosing the argument in quotation marks:. Note that after parsing the commands passed on the command line using the -XX:CompileCommand options, the JIT compiler then reads commands from the. You can add commands to this file or specify a different file using the -XX:CompileCommandFile option. The following commands are available:.

Set a breakpoint when debugging the JVM to stop at the beginning of compilation of the specified method. Exclude all methods from compilation except for the specified method. As an alternative, you can use the -XX:CompileOnly option, which allows to specify several methods. By default, logging is performed for all compiled methods. This command can be used to pass a JIT compilation option to the specified method in place of the last argument option.

The compilation option is set at the end, after the method name. For example, to enable the BlockLayoutByFrequency option for the append method of the StringBuffer class, use the following:. Do not print the compile commands.

By default, the commands that you specify with the - XX:CompileCommand option are printed; for example, if you exclude from compilation the indexOf method of the String class, then the following will be printed to standard output:.

Sets the file from which JIT compiler commands are read. By default, the. Each line in the command file represents a command, a class name, and a method name for which the command is used.

For example, this line prints assembly code for the toString method of the String class:. For more information about specifying the commands for the JIT compiler to perform on methods, see the -XX:CompileCommand option. Sets the list of methods separated by commas to which compilation should be restricted.

Only the specified methods will be compiled. Specify each method with the full class name including the packages and subpackages. For example, to compile only the length method of the String class and the size method of the List class, use the following:. Although wildcards are not supported, you can specify only the class or package name to compile all methods in that class or package, as well as specify just the method to compile methods with this name in any class:.

Sets the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation. By default, in the server JVM, the JIT compiler performs 10, interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation. For the client JVM, the default setting is 1, invocations. The following example shows how to set the number of interpreted method invocations to 5, You can completely disable interpretation of Java methods before compilation by specifying the -Xcomp option. Enables the use of escape analysis.

To disable the use of escape analysis, specify -XX:-DoEscapeAnalysis. Sets the initial code cache size in bytes. The default value is set to KB. The initial code cache size should be not less than the system's minimal memory page size. The following example shows how to set the initial code cache size to 32 KB:.

Enables method inlining. This option is enabled by default to increase performance. To disable method inlining, specify -XX:-Inline. Sets the maximum code size in bytes for compiled methods that should be inlined. Only compiled methods with the size smaller than the specified size will be inlined. By default, the maximum code size is set to bytes:.

Enables logging of compilation activity to a file named hotspot. log in the current working directory. You can specify a different log file path and name using the -XX:LogFile option. By default, this option is disabled and compilation activity is not logged. Sets the maximum bytecode size in bytes of a method to be inlined.

By default, the maximum bytecode size is set to 35 bytes:. Sets the maximum number of nodes to be used during single method compilation. By default, the maximum number of nodes is set to 65, Sets the maximum bytecode size in bytes of a trivial method to be inlined.

By default, the maximum bytecode size of a trivial method is set to 6 bytes:. Enables the optimization of String concatenation operations. To disable the optimization of String concatenation operations, specify -XX:-OptimizeStringConcat. Enables printing of assembly code for bytecoded and native methods by using the external disassembler.

so library. This enables you to see the generated code, which may help you to diagnose performance issues. By default, this option is disabled and assembly code is not printed. Enables verbose diagnostic output from the JVM by printing a message to the console every time a method is compiled.

This enables you to see which methods actually get compiled. By default, this option is disabled and diagnostic output is not printed. Enables printing of inlining decisions. This enables you to see which methods are getting inlined.

By default, this option is disabled and inlining information is not printed. Sets the maximum code cache size in bytes for JIT-compiled code. The default maximum code cache size is MB; if you disable tiered compilation with the option -XX:-TieredCompilation , then the default size is 48 MB.

This option has a limit of 2 GB; otherwise, an error is generated. The maximum code cache size should not be less than the initial code cache size; see the option -XX:InitialCodeCacheSize. This option is equivalent to -Xmaxjitcodesize. If a number of aborted transactions becomes greater than this ratio, then the compiled code will be deoptimized.

The default value of this option is RTM locking code will be retried, when it is aborted or busy, the number of times specified by this option before falling back to the normal locking mechanism.

The default value for this option is 5. The -XX:UseRTMLocking option must be enabled. Disables the use of tiered compilation. By default, this option is enabled. Enables hardware-based AES intrinsics for Intel, AMD, and SPARC hardware.

Intel Westmere and newer , AMD Bulldozer and newer , and SPARC T4 and newer are the supported hardware. UseAES is used in conjunction with UseAESIntrinsics. UseAES and UseAESIntrinsics flags are enabled by default and are supported only for Java HotSpot Server VM bit and bit. To disable hardware-based AES intrinsics, specify -XX:-UseAES -XX:-UseAESIntrinsics.

For example, to enable hardware AES, use the following flags:. To support UseAES and UseAESIntrinsics flags for bit and bit use -server option to choose Java HotSpot Server VM. These flags are not supported on Client VM. Enables flushing of the code cache before shutting down the compiler. To disable flushing of the code cache before shutting down the compiler, specify -XX:-UseCodeCacheFlushing. Enables checking of whether the card is already marked before updating the card table. This option is disabled by default and should only be used on machines with multiple sockets, where it will increase performance of Java applications that rely heavily on concurrent operations.

Auto-tunes RTM locking depending on the abort ratio. This ratio is specified by -XX:RTMAbortRatio option. If the number of aborted transactions exceeds the abort ratio, then the method containing the lock will be deoptimized and recompiled with all locks as normal locks. Generate Restricted Transactional Memory RTM locking code for all inflated locks, with the normal locking mechanism as the fallback handler.

Options related to RTM are only available for the Java HotSpot Server VM on x86 CPUs that support Transactional Synchronization Extensions TSX. RTM is part of Intel's TSX, which is an x86 instruction set extension and facilitates the creation of multithreaded applications.

RTM introduces the new instructions XBEGIN , XABORT , XEND , and XTEST. The XBEGIN and XEND instructions enclose a set of instructions to run as a transaction. If no conflict is found when running the transaction, the memory and register modifications are committed together at the XEND instruction. The XABORT instruction can be used to explicitly abort a transaction and the XEND instruction to check if a set of instructions are being run in a transaction.

A lock on a transaction is inflated when another thread tries to access the same transaction, thereby blocking the thread that did not originally request access to the transaction. RTM requires that a fallback set of operations be specified in case a transaction aborts or fails. An RTM lock is a lock that has been delegated to the TSX's system. RTM improves performance for highly contended locks with low conflict in a critical region which is code that must not be accessed by more than one thread concurrently.

RTM also improves the performance of coarse-grain locking, which typically does not perform well in multithreaded applications. Coarse-grain locking is the strategy of holding locks for long periods to minimize the overhead of taking and releasing locks, while fine-grained locking is the strategy of trying to achieve maximum parallelism by locking only when necessary and unlocking as soon as possible. Also, for lightly contended locks that are used by different threads, RTM can reduce false cache line sharing, also known as cache line ping-pong.

This occurs when multiple threads from different processors are accessing different resources, but the resources share the same cache line. As a result, the processors repeatedly invalidate the cache lines of other processors, which forces them to read from main memory instead of their cache.

Enables hardware-based intrinsics for SHA crypto hash functions for SPARC hardware. UseSHA is used in conjunction with the UseSHA1Intrinsics , UseSHAIntrinsics , and UseSHAIntrinsics options.

This feature is only applicable when using the sun. Sun provider for SHA operations. To disable all hardware-based SHA intrinsics, specify -XX:-UseSHA. To disable only a particular SHA intrinsic, use the appropriate corresponding option. For example: -XX:-UseSHAIntrinsics. Enables the transformation of scalar operations into superword operations. To disable the transformation of scalar operations into superword operations, specify -XX:-UseSuperWord.

Enables additional dtrace tool probes that impact the performance. By default, this option is disabled and dtrace performs only standard probes. Enables the dumping of the Java heap to a file in the current directory by using the heap profiler HPROF when a java. OutOfMemoryError exception is thrown. You can explicitly set the heap dump file path and name using the -XX:HeapDumpPath option.

By default, this option is disabled and the heap is not dumped when an OutOfMemoryError exception is thrown. hprof where pid is the identifier of the process that caused the error. hprof :. Sets the path and file name where log data is written.

By default, the file is created in the current working directory, and it is named hotspot. Setting this option is equivalent to running the jmap -histo command, or the jcmd pid GC. Enables printing of java. Setting this option is equivalent to running the jstack -l command or the jcmd pid Thread.

print -l command, where pid is the current Java process identifier. Unlocks the options intended for diagnosing the JVM.

COPY moves data between PostgreSQL tables and standard file-system files. COPY TO copies the contents of a table to a file, while COPY FROM copies data from a file to a table appending the data to whatever is in the table already. COPY TO can also copy the results of a SELECT query. If a column list is specified, COPY TO copies only the data in the specified columns to the file. For COPY FROM , each field in the file is inserted, in order, into the specified column.

Table columns not specified in the COPY FROM column list will receive their default values. COPY with a file name instructs the PostgreSQL server to directly read from or write to a file. The file must be accessible by the PostgreSQL user the user ID the server runs as and the name must be specified from the viewpoint of the server. When PROGRAM is specified, the server executes the given command and reads from the standard output of the program, or writes to the standard input of the program.

The command must be specified from the viewpoint of the server, and be executable by the PostgreSQL user. When STDIN or STDOUT is specified, data is transmitted via the connection between the client and the server. See Section An optional list of columns to be copied. If no column list is specified, all columns of the table except generated columns will be copied. A SELECT , VALUES , INSERT , UPDATE , or DELETE command whose results are to be copied. Note that parentheses are required around the query.

For INSERT , UPDATE and DELETE queries a RETURNING clause must be provided, and the target relation must not have a conditional rule, nor an ALSO rule, nor an INSTEAD rule that expands to multiple statements.

The path name of the input or output file. An input file name can be an absolute or relative path, but an output file name must be an absolute path. Windows users might need to use an E'' string and double any backslashes used in the path name. A command to execute. In COPY FROM , the input is read from standard output of the command, and in COPY TO , the output is written to the standard input of the command. Note that the command is invoked by the shell, so if you need to pass any arguments to shell command that come from an untrusted source, you must be careful to strip or escape any special characters that might have a special meaning for the shell.

For security reasons, it is best to use a fixed command string, or at least avoid passing any user input in it. Specifies whether the selected option should be turned on or off. You can write TRUE , ON , or 1 to enable the option, and FALSE , OFF , or 0 to disable it. The boolean value can also be omitted, in which case TRUE is assumed. Selects the data format to be read or written: text , csv Comma Separated Values , or binary.

The default is text. Requests copying the data with rows already frozen, just as they would be after running the VACUUM FREEZE command. This is intended as a performance option for initial data loading.

Rows will be frozen only if the table being loaded has been created or truncated in the current subtransaction, there are no cursors open and there are no older snapshots held by this transaction. It is currently not possible to perform a COPY FREEZE on a partitioned table. Note that all other sessions will immediately be able to see the data once it has been successfully loaded.

This violates the normal rules of MVCC visibility and users specifying should be aware of the potential problems this might cause. Specifies the character that separates columns within each row line of the file. The default is a tab character in text format, a comma in CSV format. This must be a single one-byte character. This option is not allowed when using binary format. Specifies the string that represents a null value.

You might prefer an empty string even in text format for cases where you don't want to distinguish nulls from empty strings. When using COPY FROM , any data item that matches this string will be stored as a null value, so you should make sure that you use the same string as you used with COPY TO. Specifies that the file contains a header line with the names of each column in the file.

On output, the first line contains the column names from the table. On input, the first line is discarded when this option is set to true or equivalent Boolean value. If this option is set to MATCH , the number and names of the columns in the header line must match the actual column names of the table, in order; otherwise an error is raised.

The MATCH option is only valid for COPY FROM commands. Specifies the quoting character to be used when a data value is quoted. The default is double-quote. This option is allowed only when using CSV format. Specifies the character that should appear before a data character that matches the QUOTE value.

The default is the same as the QUOTE value so that the quoting character is doubled if it appears in the data. Forces quoting to be used for all non- NULL values in each specified column. NULL output is never quoted. This option is allowed only in COPY TO , and only when using CSV format. Do not match the specified columns' values against the null string. In the default case where the null string is empty, this means that empty values will be read as zero-length strings rather than nulls, even when they are not quoted.

This option is allowed only in COPY FROM , and only when using CSV format. Match the specified columns' values against the null string, even if it has been quoted, and if a match is found set the value to NULL. In the default case where the null string is empty, this converts a quoted empty string into NULL.

If this option is omitted, the current client encoding is used. See the Notes below for more details. where condition is any expression that evaluates to a result of type boolean. Any row that does not satisfy this condition will not be inserted to the table.

A row satisfies the condition if it returns true when the actual row values are substituted for any variable references. Currently, subqueries are not allowed in WHERE expressions, and the evaluation does not see any changes made by the COPY itself this matters when the expression contains calls to VOLATILE functions. On successful completion, a COPY command returns a command tag of the form. psql will print this command tag only if the command was not COPY to stdout. This is to prevent confusing the command tag with the data that was just printed.

COPY TO can be used only with plain tables, not views, and does not copy rows from child tables or child partitions. can be used to dump all of the rows in an inheritance hierarchy, partitioned table, or view. COPY FROM can be used with plain, foreign, or partitioned tables or with views that have INSTEAD OF INSERT triggers.

You must have select privilege on the table whose values are read by COPY TO , and insert privilege on the table into which values are inserted by COPY FROM. It is sufficient to have column privileges on the column s listed in the command. If row-level security is enabled for the table, the relevant SELECT policies will apply to COPY table TO statements.

Currently, COPY FROM is not supported for tables with row-level security. Use equivalent INSERT statements instead. Files named in a COPY command are read or written directly by the server, not by the client application. Therefore, they must reside on or be accessible to the database server machine, not the client.

They must be accessible to and readable or writable by the PostgreSQL user the user ID the server runs as , not the client. Similarly, the command specified with PROGRAM is executed directly by the server, not by the client application, must be executable by the PostgreSQL user. It is recommended that the file name used in COPY always be specified as an absolute path.

This is enforced by the server in the case of COPY TO , but for COPY FROM you do have the option of reading from a file specified by a relative path. The path will be interpreted relative to the working directory of the server process normally the cluster's data directory , not the client's working directory. Executing a command with PROGRAM might be restricted by the operating system's access control mechanisms, such as SELinux.

COPY FROM will invoke any triggers and check constraints on the destination table. However, it will not invoke rules. COPY input and output is affected by DateStyle. To ensure portability to other PostgreSQL installations that might use non-default DateStyle settings, DateStyle should be set to ISO before using COPY TO. Input data is interpreted according to ENCODING option or the current client encoding, and output data is encoded in ENCODING or the current client encoding, even if the data does not pass through the client but is read from or written to a file directly by the server.

COPY stops operation at the first error. This should not lead to problems in the event of a COPY TO , but the target table will already have received earlier rows in a COPY FROM.

These rows will not be visible or accessible, but they still occupy disk space. This might amount to a considerable amount of wasted disk space if the failure happened well into a large copy operation. You might wish to invoke VACUUM to recover the wasted space. This results in converting quoted null strings to null values and unquoted null strings to empty strings.

When the text format is used, the data read or written is a text file with one line per table row. Columns in a row are separated by the delimiter character.

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WebAdvanced Runtime Options. These options control the runtime behavior of the Java HotSpot VM.-XX:+CheckEndorsedAndExtDirs. Enables the option to prevent the java command from running a Java application if it uses the endorsed-standards override mechanism or the extension mechanism. This option checks if an application is using one of these WebReading binary files (docx, odt, epub) implies --file-scope.-F PROGRAM, --filter= PROGRAM. Specify an executable to be used as a filter transforming the pandoc AST after the input is parsed and before the output is written. The executable should read JSON from stdin and write JSON to stdout. This option works only with HTML output formats Web"License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction, and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document. "Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by the copyright owner that is granting the License. "Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all other entities that control, are controlled by, or WebOption 2: Automatically find drivers for my NVIDIA products. Learn More Advanced Driver Search: Search for previously released Certified or Beta drivers. (NVIDIA Virtual GPU Customers. Enterprise customers with a current vGPU software license (GRID vPC, GRID vApps or Quadro vDWS), can log into the enterprise software download portal by WebIf CHAR() is invoked from within the mysql client, binary strings display using hexadecimal notation, depending on the value of the --binary-as-hex. For more information about that option, see Section , “mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Client” WebThe name for the binary log index file, which contains the names of the binary log files. By default, it has the same location and base name as the value specified for the binary log files using the --log-bin option, plus the blogger.com you do not specify --log-bin, the default binary log index file name is blogger.com ... read more

Enables the use of the Java Flight Recorder JFR during the runtime of the application. However, subsequent paragraphs must be preceded by a blank line and indented to line up with the first non-space content after the list marker. This variable is not supported by NDB Cluster; setting it has no effect on the logging of NDB tables. Offset for section headings in HTML output ignored in other output formats. The man page writer extracts a title, man page section number, and other header and footer information from the title line. The header extension area is envisioned to contain a sequence of self-identifying chunks.

For those controls that have implicit labels, user agents should use the value of the value attribute as the label string. For the client JVM, html option binary, the default setting is 1, invocations. Log flushing occurs as indicated in Section 5. Returns NULL if str or count is NULL. Html option binary default, this option is enabled.

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