WebApple Footer The following purchases with Apple Card are ineligible to earn 5% back: monthly financing through Apple Card Monthly Installments, Apple iPhone Payments, the iPhone Upgrade Program, and wireless carrier financing plans; Apple Media Services; AppleCare+ monthly payments. Subject to credit approval. Valid only on qualifying WebPresidential politics and political news from blogger.com News about political parties, political campaigns, world and international politics, politics news headlines plus in-depth features and WebQuestia. After more than twenty years, Questia is discontinuing operations as of Monday, December 21, WebThe gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the blogger.com GI tract contains all the major organs of the digestive system, in humans and other animals, including the esophagus, stomach, and blogger.com taken in through the mouth is Web2 days ago · optparse is a more convenient, flexible, and powerful library for parsing command-line options than the old getopt module. optparse uses a more declarative style of command-line parsing: you create an instance of OptionParser, populate it with options, and parse the command line. optparse allows users to specify options in the conventional ... read more
Kristen Rogers, CNN. By Jocelyn Brumbaugh. Latest Video. Marine returns home to surprise family for the holidays. Doorbell video helps police capture porch pirates. Woman whose car was stolen off the side of highway surprised with new car. Mother, son fulfill kindergarten promise as they graduate college together. Slideshow Central. Pawleys Island PD. Diverticulosis occurs when pouches form on the intestinal wall. Once the pouches become inflamed it is known as diverticulitis. Inflammatory bowel disease is an inflammatory condition affecting the bowel walls, and includes the subtypes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
While Crohn's can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract, ulcerative colitis is limited to the large intestine. Crohn's disease is widely regarded as an autoimmune disease. Although ulcerative colitis is often treated as though it were an autoimmune disease, there is no consensus that it actually is such. Functional gastrointestinal disorders the most common of which is irritable bowel syndrome.
Functional constipation and chronic functional abdominal pain are other functional disorders of the intestine that have physiological causes but do not have identifiable structural, chemical, or infectious pathologies. Gastrointestinal surgery can often be performed in the outpatient setting.
In the United States in , operations on the digestive system accounted for 3 of the 25 most common ambulatory surgery procedures and constituted 9. Various methods of imaging the gastrointestinal tract include the upper and lower gastrointestinal series :. Intestines from animals other than humans are used in a number of ways.
From each species of livestock that is a source of milk , a corresponding rennet is obtained from the intestines of milk-fed calves. Pig and calf intestines are eaten, and pig intestines are used as sausage casings. Calf intestines supply calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase CIP , and are used to make goldbeater's skin. Other uses are:. Many birds and other animals have a specialised stomach in the digestive tract called a gizzard used for grinding up food. Another feature not found in the human but found in a range of other animals is the crop.
In birds this is found as a pouch alongside the esophagus. Most vertebrates including fishes , amphibians , birds , reptiles , and egg-laying mammals have a major difference in their GI tract in that it ends in a cloaca and not an anus , having merged the urinary system with the genito-anal pore.
In , the oldest known fossil digestive tract, of an extinct wormlike organism in the Cloudinidae was discovered; it lived during the late Ediacaran period about million years ago. A through-gut one with both mouth and anus is thought to have evolved within the nephrozoan clade of Bilateria , after their ancestral ventral orifice single, as in cnidarians and acoels ; re-evolved in nephrozoans like flatworms stretched antero-posteriorly, before the middle part of the stretch would get narrower and closed fully, leaving an anterior orifice mouth and a posterior orifice anus plus genital opening.
A stretched gut without the middle part closed is present in another branch of bilaterians, the extinct proarticulates. This and the amphistomic development when both mouth and anus develop from the gut stretch in the embryo present in some nephrozoans e. roundworms are considered to support this hypothesis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Organ system within humans and other animals. For other uses, see Enteric disambiguation. Diagram of stomach , intestines and rectum in the average human.
Upper gastrointestinal tract. Mouth Esophagus Stomach Duodenum. Lower gastrointestinal tract. Small intestine Jejunum Ileum Large intestine Sigmoid colon Rectum Anus. See also. Gastrointestinal wall Anatomical terminology Outline of anatomy. Main articles: Mouth , Pharynx , Esophagus , Stomach , and duodenum. For other uses, see Gut disambiguation. Main articles: Small intestine , Duodenum , Jejunum , and Ileum. Main article: Large intestine. Main article: Development of the digestive system.
Main article: Gastrointestinal wall. See also: Oral mucosa and Gastric mucosa. Main article: Submucosa. Main articles: Serous membrane and Adventitia. This section discusses related diseases, medical associations with the gastrointestinal tract, and use in surgery.
Main articles: Gastrointestinal disease and Gastroenterology. Further information: Clinical significance. Further information: Digestive system of ruminants. This article uses anatomical terminology. Retrieved 25 June Invertebrate Zoology 7 ed. ISBN Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. doi : ISSN PMID S2CID Digestive Endoscopy. BMC Immunology.
PMC R; Adams, D. H; Fava, F; Hermes, G. D; Hirschfield, G. M; Hold, G; Quraishi, M. N; Kinross, J; Smidt, H; Tuohy, K. M; Thomas, L. V; Zoetendal, E. G; Hart, A Molecular Endocrinology. Introduction to Behavioral Endocrinology. Sinauer Associates: Massachusetts. The Physics Factbook. Warrell Oxford textbook of medicine: Sections Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 1 July Gest, Thomas R. WebMD LLC. Retrieved Gray's Anatomy. Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul Gray's anatomy for students 3rd ed. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology Twelfth ed.
Carlson Human Embryology and Developmental Biology 3rd ed. Saint Louis: Mosby. Kierszenbaum Histology and cell biology: an introduction to pathology. Louis: Mosby. Colonic Motility: From Bench Side to Bedside.
Journal of Gastroenterology. Colorado State University. When did I eat corn? Gastrointestinal transit time in health science students". He thinks you're all far too mean about Deus Ex: Invisible War.
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nntplib — NNTP protocol client. ossaudiodev — Access to OSS-compatible audio devices. Deprecated since version 3. optparse is a more convenient, flexible, and powerful library for parsing command-line options than the old getopt module. optparse uses a more declarative style of command-line parsing: you create an instance of OptionParser , populate it with options, and parse the command line.
filename will be "outfile" and options. verbose will be False. optparse supports both long and short options, allows short options to be merged together, and allows options to be associated with their arguments in a variety of ways. Thus, the following command lines are all equivalent to the above example:.
where the value of yourscript is determined at runtime normally from sys. optparse was explicitly designed to encourage the creation of programs with straightforward, conventional command-line interfaces. To that end, it supports only the most common command-line syntax and semantics conventionally used under Unix. If you are unfamiliar with these conventions, read this section to acquaint yourself with them.
a string entered on the command-line, and passed by the shell to execl or execv. In Python, arguments are elements of sys. argv[1:] sys. argv is the name of the program being executed. It is occasionally desirable to substitute an argument list other than sys.
argv[1:] , or of some other list provided as a substitute for sys. an argument used to supply extra information to guide or customize the execution of a program. Also, traditional Unix syntax allows multiple options to be merged into a single argument, e.
The GNU project introduced -- followed by a series of hyphen-separated words, e. These are the only two option syntaxes provided by optparse. a hyphen followed by a few letters, e. a hyphen followed by a whole word, e. a plus sign followed by a single letter, or a few letters, or a word, e. a slash followed by a letter, or a few letters, or a word, e. These option syntaxes are not supported by optparse , and they never will be. VMS, MS-DOS. an argument that follows an option, is closely associated with that option, and is consumed from the argument list when that option is.
With optparse , option arguments may either be in a separate argument from their option:. This is somewhat controversial, because it makes parsing ambiguous: if -a takes an optional argument and -b is another option entirely, how do we interpret -ab?
Because of this ambiguity, optparse does not support this feature. something leftover in the argument list after options have been parsed, i. after options and their arguments have been parsed and removed from the argument list.
Assuming that --report takes one argument, report. txt is an option argument. foo and bar are positional arguments. Options are used to provide extra information to tune or customize the execution of a program. A program should be able to run just fine with no options whatsoever.
Pick a random program from the Unix or GNU toolsets. Can it run without any options at all and still make sense?
The main exceptions are find , tar , and dd —all of which are mutant oddballs that have been rightly criticized for their non-standard syntax and confusing interfaces. Think about it. As an example of good command-line interface design, consider the humble cp utility, for copying files. Hence, cp fails if you run it with no arguments. However, it has a flexible, useful syntax that does not require any options at all:. You can get pretty far with just that.
Most cp implementations provide a bunch of options to tweak exactly how the files are copied: you can preserve mode and modification time, avoid following symlinks, ask before clobbering existing files, etc.
But none of this distracts from the core mission of cp , which is to copy either one file to another, or several files to another directory. Positional arguments are for those pieces of information that your program absolutely, positively requires to run. A good user interface should have as few absolute requirements as possible. This applies whether the user interface is a command-line, a configuration file, or a GUI: if you make that many demands on your users, most of them will simply give up.
In short, try to minimize the amount of information that users are absolutely required to supply—use sensible defaults whenever possible. Of course, you also want to make your programs reasonably flexible. Too much flexibility has drawbacks as well, of course; too many options can overwhelm users and make your code much harder to maintain. This section covers the code patterns that are common to any optparse -based program.
First, you need to import the OptionParser class; then, early in the main program, create an OptionParser instance:. Each option has one or more option strings, such as -f or --file , and several option attributes that tell optparse what to expect and what to do when it encounters that option on the command line.
The option strings passed to OptionParser. For brevity, we will frequently refer to encountering an option on the command line; in reality, optparse encounters option strings and looks up options from them. options , an object containing values for all of your options—e. if --file takes a single string argument, then options. file will be the filename supplied by the user, or None if the user did not supply that option.
args , the list of positional arguments leftover after parsing options. This tutorial section only covers the four most important option attributes: action , type , dest destination , and help. Of these, action is the most fundamental.
Actions tell optparse what to do when it encounters an option on the command line. There is a fixed set of actions hard-coded into optparse ; adding new actions is an advanced topic covered in section Extending optparse. Most actions tell optparse to store a value in some variable—for example, take a string from the command line and store it in an attribute of options. The most common option action is store , which tells optparse to take the next argument or the remainder of the current argument , ensure that it is of the correct type, and store it to your chosen destination.
When optparse sees the option string -f , it consumes the next argument, foo. txt , and stores it in options. filename is "foo. Some other option types supported by optparse are int and float. Note that this option has no long option string, which is perfectly acceptable. Combined with the fact that the default action is store , that means our first example can be a lot shorter:. If there are no long option strings, optparse looks at the first short option string: the default destination for -f is f.
optparse also includes the built-in complex type. Adding types is covered in section Extending optparse. Flag options—set a variable to true or false when a particular option is seen—are quite common. For example, you might have a verbose flag that is turned on with -v and off with -q :. Here we have two different options with the same destination, which is perfectly OK. It just means you have to be a bit careful when setting default values—see below.
When optparse encounters -v on the command line, it sets options. verbose to True ; when it encounters -q , options. verbose is set to False. Some other actions supported by optparse are:. These are covered in section Reference Guide , and section Option Callbacks.
What happens if those options are never seen? This is usually fine, but sometimes you want more control. optparse lets you supply a default value for each destination, which is assigned before the command line is parsed.
If we want optparse to set verbose to True unless -q is seen, then we can do this:. Since default values apply to the destination rather than to any particular option, and these two options happen to have the same destination, this is exactly equivalent:.
Again, the default value for verbose will be True : the last default value supplied for any particular destination is the one that counts. As before, the last value specified for a given option destination is the one that counts. For clarity, try to use one method or the other of setting default values, not both. All you have to do is supply a help value for each option, and optionally a short usage message for your whole program.
If optparse encounters either -h or --help on the command-line, or if you just call parser.
WebPresidential politics and political news from blogger.com News about political parties, political campaigns, world and international politics, politics news headlines plus in-depth features and WebHearst Television participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites Web2 days ago · optparse is a more convenient, flexible, and powerful library for parsing command-line options than the old getopt module. optparse uses a more declarative style of command-line parsing: you create an instance of OptionParser, populate it with options, and parse the command line. optparse allows users to specify options in the conventional Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional WebApple Footer The following purchases with Apple Card are ineligible to earn 5% back: monthly financing through Apple Card Monthly Installments, Apple iPhone Payments, the iPhone Upgrade Program, and wireless carrier financing plans; Apple Media Services; AppleCare+ monthly payments. Subject to credit approval. Valid only on qualifying WebThe gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the blogger.com GI tract contains all the major organs of the digestive system, in humans and other animals, including the esophagus, stomach, and blogger.com taken in through the mouth is ... read more
Apple M2 chip. Mark Baldassare , Dean Bonner , Rachel Lawler , and Deja Thomas. The value const is stored in dest. Set parsing to not stop on the first non-option, allowing interspersing switches with command arguments. What makes a Mac a Mac?As Californians prepare to vote in the upcoming midterm election, fewer than half of adults and likely voters are satisfied with the way democracy is working in the United States—and few are very satisfied. The choices option attribute a sequence of strings defines the set of allowed option arguments. bare -- if not the argument to some option : halt command-line processing and discard the This bite binary option that 95 times out ofthe results will be within 3. prog - a arg1 - b arg2. Compare all Mac models Shop Mac, bite binary option.